Classic Endodontic Articles


The results of this classic research article, show that the use of Magnification leads to MB2 detection three times more than non-magnification. Art of Endo uses magnification in ALL root canal cases!

The purpose of this study was to determine if the surgical operating microscope and/or dental loupes could enhance the practitioner’s ability to locate the second mesiobuccal canal (MB2) canal of maxillary molars in an in vivo, clinical setting. The participating endodontists documented 312 cases of root canal therapy on maxillary first and second molars. Participants that used the microscope or dental loupes located the MB2 canal with a frequency of 57.4% and 55.3%, respectively. Those using no magnification located the MB2 canal with a frequency of 18.2%. When no magnification was used, significantly fewer MB2 canals were located based by Chi-square analysis at p < 0.01. There was no significant difference between the use of the microscope and dental loupes in the frequency of locating the MB2 canal. When the maxillary first molars were considered separately, the frequency of MB2 canal detection for the microscope, dental loupes, and no magnification groups was 71.1%, 62.5%, and 17.2%, respectively. The results of this study show that the use of magnification in combined groups leads to a MB2 detection rate approximately three times that of the nonmagnification group and that the use of no magnification results in the location of significantly fewer MB2 canals. Based on these results, more emphasis should be placed on the importance of using magnification for locating the MB2 canal.

Radix Entomolaris

PreOp 1 Post Op 1

Another great example of Radix Enomolaris that was just completed.  In the Pre-Op the patient presented with a Previously Treated #30 with Acute Apical Abscess.  Upon ReTx I noticed an untreated DL canal.  The Post-Op shows the reverse direction of the extra  DL root.


RadixMarcoVersiani02 Radix 1 Radix 2 Radix 3

Here’s an interesting case and a fun root canal!  In the microscope I could see another canal in the far distal/lingual corner of tooth #30. It’s what’s called a Radix Entomolaris – the presence of an additional distolingual root.  This is opposite a Radix Paramolaris – the presence of an additional distobuccal root.